In the present study, 200 x-rays of 116 chelonians taken during the period between 1929 and 1995 were re-diagnosed. The current diagnoses were compared with those made at the time of the x-rays. The anatomy and physiology of the chelonian are described in the bibliography and an overview is given of radiographic examination of chelonians,including radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The aetiology of some of the diseases frequently occuring in chelonians is described. This is followed by a list of the animals examined according to species, sex and age. An explanation is given of the new standardized method of evaluation. The results are described according to organ systems and, in addition, attention is given to radiographic technique, positioning and anti-radiation precautions. Some interesting cases were selected for special attention and illustrated using photographs of the x-rays. Furthermore, the degree of correspondence between the results obtained in this study with those found in reference literature is discussed. A comparison is made between the initial and current diagnoses.