In this study a survey on the frequency of soilings of small animals, which are not easily removed with soap and water was carried out questioning 59 Austrian Veterinarians. The most common soils and difficulties in cleaning and treating these cases were also evaluated.
Thereby it was confirmed, that most vets see these cases (84,7 % of vets) in a low frequency (mean of 2,8 cases/questioned vet a year, with 0.7 hard soilings out of that). Most light (38,6 %) and heavy (57,4 %) soilings were caused by petroleum products. Good results in cleaning were achieved only in 24,6 % of the light and 29,9 % of the heavy soiling cases.
Therefore 18 detergents as well as 23 solvents and oils were evaluated on their cleaning ability. First they were tested on beakers and watch glasses and then on fur pieces, wich were soiled by used motor oil, fuel oil and bitumen. Motor oil and fuel oil were most effectively removed by Dawn dish washing soap® (Fairy von Dawn®) (Procter & Gamble), followed by Pril Kraft Gel® (Henkel). To remove bitumen a pretreatment was needed. Best results were achieved with Ökodiesel® (Canolaoilmehtylester) (Öhlmühle GmbH) and Shell D 70® (Shell GmbH).
Butter (Spar) and Penaten Babyoil® (Johnson & Johnson) were also able to soften bitumen, so that it could be washed of by a detergent.
A patch test on 10 Beagle dogs was carried out in order to evaluate the irritating potential for skin of 8 products, which were compared with 2 negative and 1 positive (Sodium Lauryl Sulfat: SDS) control. The results were the following: no irritation (PDII: 0) for both negative control`s and PEG 400; negligible irritation (PDII: 0,5) for Fairy von Dawn® and Ökodiesel®; mild irritation for Radikalin®, Pril Kraft Gel® (PDII: 0,9), Cupran® (PDII: 1,3), Shell T (PDII: 1,6), and Shell D 70 (PDII: 1,7).
Because only 50 % of the dogs reacted to SDS (concentration: 2 %, purity: 99,9 %), it could not be used as a positive control to evaluate the individual sensitivity of the dogs skin to chemical irritants. Since Shell D 70 is a hydrocarbon solvent (Toxicity), Ökodiesel®, Butter or Babyoil is better suited to soften bitumen.
heavy soilings / contamination / cleaning / small animals / haircoat / skin / petroleum products / patch test / detergents / sovents / canolaoilmethylester / sodium lauryl sulfat