Althoug little is known about the vitamin levels in dogs with chronic disease, supply of vitamins for these patients is recommended.
The aim of this study was to provide information about the vitamin concentrations in the blood of dogs with chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease and dogs with neoplasia. Furthermore this study investigated the influence of chemotherapy in dogs with malignant systemic or metastatic neoplasia on the vitamin levels. The data were compared to already existing data from healthy dogs.
For this purpose 13 dogs with chronic liver disease, 17 dogs with chronic kidney disease and 12 dogs with neoplastic disorders receiving chemotherapy were investigated regarding their blood vitamin concentrations. Dogs under 12 months, patients with acute diseases and dogs supplemented with vitamins were excluded from the study. The blood sampling was carried out once in the dogs with chronic liver or kidney disease and twice in the dogs with neoplastic disorders before and after chemotherapy. Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol were measured by HPLC.
Biotin, folate, pantothenic acid and vitamin B12 were analyzed by microbiological procedures. Dogs with chronic liver disease showed increased concentrations of ascorbic acid, vitamin B1, B2, B12, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate, and decreased concentrations of retinol, biotin, pantothenic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with published data of healthy dogs. Dogs with chronic kidney disease showed increased levels of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, and ascorbic acid and decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Dogs with neoplasia showed an increase of retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, vitamin B1, ascorbic acid and biotin. The folate concentrations were decreased. After chemotherapy the dogs showed significantly increased blood levels of retinol and significantly decreased concentrations of biotin. Dogs with chronic liver and kidney disease and neoplasia showed different blood levels of the majority of the investigated vitamins compared to healthy dogs. This seems to be in part depending on the underlying disease. However, influence of diet needs to be considered in the interpretation of the results.
Chemotherapy seems to have little influence on blood vitamin levels of dogs.