In October 1998 the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) implemented a voluntary BVD-Virus control programme that was changed from voluntary to compulsory at the end of 1999. Until 2003 all young bovines were individually blood tested for BVDV. In 2004 the testing shifted to bulk milk. Samples were collected on dairy farms and tested for BVD antibodies. In farms not selling milk to industry individual blood sampling was carried out on young bovines. From 1. April 2005 until 31. May 2007 all newborn calves were sampled for BVDV antigen by analyzing an ear notch sample. The tissue samples were collected during calf ear tagging (within the first 20 days of life) using a sampling device (TypiFix®-System, Agrobiogen GmbH Thalmannsdorf 25, D-86567 Hilgertshausen, Germany) and were analysed by using a commercially available ELISA kit for the detection of Erns (HerdCheck BVDV Antigen/Serum Plus, IDEXX Laboratories). Positive calves were subjected to a follow-up examination (blood, ear notch sample). Serum from retested calves was additionally analyzed by adopting a two step RT-PCR programme (WEINSTOCK et al., 2001). Blood samples were also collected from the dam, if still present on the farm by the time. 153,710 calves were tested for BVDV. About 0.48% of the collected samples showed a positive result. In total 344 positive calves were subjected to the follow-up examination. 271 out of the 344 retested bovines were BVD virus positive (ELISA, RT-PCR).