This thesis deals with the kinematic motion analysis of the hind limb in dogs with coxarthrosis during special physiotherapeutic exercises. It is hypothesized that coxarthrosis reduces the extension and flexion of the hip joint of dogs. Ten dogs underwent a clinic and radiographic examination and ground reaction forces were measured in order to verify lameness. The data from the lame extremities and contralateral extremities of the dogs diagnosed with coxarthrosis were compared with those of eight orthopedically healthy dogs from a previous study. The kinetic and kinematic examinations took place in the Movement Analysis Hall at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. The kinetic examinations were conducted on a treadmill with four integrated strength measurement scales. In order to take kinematic measurements the dogs were marked with reflective materials on several joint points on their hind limbs. Three special exercises were selected: Cavaletti, uphill (incline) and downhill (decline) movements. Special hight-adjustable Cavaletti were arranged and placed for the Cavaletti exercise, and a horse treadmill was utilized for the uphill and downhill exercises, the hight was set at an 11% grade.
The following parameters were closely monitored: maximum extension angle, maximum flexion angle, maximum extension angle in relation to temporal appearance, and maximum flexion angle in relation to temporal appearance and ROM.
This study found that a coxarthrosis inflicted hip joint only showed the hypothesized results during the downhill exercise. The inflicted hip joint showed a decreased extension in comparison to healthy hip joints during this exercise. This decreased extension also appeared in the inflicted contralateral hip joint of the dogs. A temporarily delayed appearance of the maximum extension of the lame hip joint in comparison to the contralateral hip joint was observed during the Cavaletti exercise. The maximum flexion of the hip joint of the lame extremity showed higher values than the contralateral extremities. The orthopedically healthy stifle joint showed a higher ROM and a higher maximum extension than the stifle joint of the coxarthrosis inflicted extremity during the Incline exercise. The tarsal joints only showed a significant difference during the Cavaletti exercise. The tarsal joint of the lame limb exhibited a higher maximum flexion and a higher ROM than those of a healthy dog. The comparison between healthy limbs and contralateral limbs showed differences in the extension and flexion.
While the healthy limbs showed a higher extension during the Cavaletti exercise, the contralateral tarsal joint exhibited a higher maximum flexion than the healthy limb.
The findings of this study provide an addition to the existing literature on coxarthrosis in order to increase the understanding of the movements of coxarthrosis inflicted patients. The kinematic gait analysis can especially be consulted in the arthrosis health field in order to optimize the physiotherapeutic methods and as a follow -up for conservative and/or surgical treatment.
Kinematic / Dog / Coxarthrosis / Lameness / Special Movements