Cephalosporins in horses. Literature research regarding pharmakokinetics and pharmkodynamics of Cefquinome and Ceftiofur. Is there an added value of cephalosporins over the combination of Penicillin G and Gentamicin ?
Diplomarbeit, Vet. Med. Univ. Wien, pp. 90.
The aim of this review was to evaluate the status quo of facts on pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynamiks of the two cephalosporins Cefquinome and Ceftiofur in the hores.
Furthermore, to proof if there have been done enough studies in horses, or if we have to
revert to studies done in other animals and in humans. Furthermore, the study was done to
evaluate if cephalosporins have an advantage over the combination of Penicillin G and
The literature research showed, compared to other animal species, that there are just a few
studies about the pharmacokinetics and the pharmakodynamics of Cefquinome and Ceftiofur
done in horses. But these few studies justify the use of both substances in horses. Especially
for Cefquinome there are just a few studies about pharmacokinetics in horses existing.
There are just a very small number of studies concerning about adverse reactions and dosage
regimen. All cephalosporins are considered as nephrotoxic. Hence, it would be good to
perform studies concerning dosage regimen for horses with diseased kidneys and long term
Another field that is not adequately addressed is the state of resistances of equine bacterial
isolates to Cefquinome and Ceftiofur. There is not a single study that concerns about the
resistance situation in Austria. But if we take a look at the resistance situation in cattles, we
see increasing numbers of resistances to cephalosporins during the last few years.
In summary, the cephalosporins Cefquinome and Ceftiofur are very active against respiratory
infections in horses and against bacterial infections in foals. The level of resistance is still low.
However, to keep it low, these cephalosporins should be excluded as drugs of first choice.
The combination Penicillin-Gentamicine is still effective in most cases and therefore it should
be chosen as drugs of first choice for routine antimicrobial treatment of horses. Only after
insufficient response and after having obtained the results of susceptibility testing, the cephalosporins may be considered for use. Thus the development of resistance against these
cephalosporins can be decreased.