Up to now for Swine Workshop Cluster 2 (SWC2) the orthologous human CD molecule was unknown. By use of the SWC2-specific mAb b30c7 and a retroviral cDNA expression library derived from stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells we could identify SWC2 as porcine CD27. Phenotypic analyses of lymphocytes isolated from blood and lymphatic organs revealed that mature T cells in thymus and T cells in the periphery with a naïve phenotype were CD27(+). However, within CD8α(+) T helper and CD8α(+) γδ T cells also CD27(-) cells were present, indicating a down-regulation after antigen contact in vivo. B cells lacked CD27 expression, whereas NK cells expressed intermediate levels. Furthermore, plate-bound mAb b30c7 showed a costimulatory capacity on CD3-activated T cells for proliferation, IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Hence, our data indicate an important role of porcine CD27 for T-cell differentiation and activation as described for humans and mice.