The wild boar Sus scrofa
has a worldwide distribution and
is the ancestor of the today’s
worldwide known domestic pig, whereby it plays an important role in reproduction as well as in the field of meat production and also in the art of processing pigmeat. The genetic diversity of these animals is pretty well-known in Western Europe, however in the Eastern Europe area there are very limited data
available. Therefore this work attends to the study of the
genetic diversity of Eurasian populations of the wild boar in Russia, where the variability of the amelogenin gen on the Y-chromosome is examined. It is therefore the objective of the this study to analyse the genetic diversity of wild boars in Russia as well as the distribution of the haplotypes.
In the four wider regions of Russia, there are wild boars with different haplotypes. In general there are three haplotypes: HY1 haplotype, HY2 haplotype and HY3 haplotype, which differ on two mutation sites. Originally there have been 76 tissue samples and 62 DNA samples from Russia. Although the 62 DNA samples could not be amplified and thus fewer samples than originally anticipated could be used, a meaningful result can still be inferred. In total 47 samples could be related to the appropriate haplotype and it was proven, that 34 % of the
wild boars in the European part of Russia displayed the HY1 haplotype, 48 % the HY2 haplotype and 17 % the HY3 haplotype. Despite of the limited samples it was nevertheless possible to draw conclusions to the
distribution of the wild boar populations. To analyze the frequencies of the haplotypes between the regions, a chi-square-test was conducted. Through comparison of the three alleles between the European part of Russia and
the Ural region it appeared that there was no significant difference between these two regions (p=0.64). However when comparing these two regions together against Eastern Siberia, it came out that there is obviously a high
difference (p=0.0005). Unfortunately due to the lack of samples from the intermediate regions, it is not possible to specify the border regions.
Thus, to make more accurate statements about the borders of this distribution it is important to get more samples from border areas of Siberia and the Far East. This way it is possible to figure out the preferred dissemination of these individuals with these three haplotypes.