This paper presents a limited survey of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Indonesian milk. AFM1 concentrations of 113 fresh milk samples, collected in 2006 from farms in five different areas of the Yogyakarta Province were analysed. The fresh milk samples were taken directly from dairy farms before pasteurisation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. Results show that in 48 samples (42.5%) the AFM concentrations were less than 5 ng/L and in 31 samples (27.4%) AFM1 was found between 5 and 10 ng/L. In 34 samples (30.1%) the concentrations were above 10 ng/L. None of contaminated samples exceeded the European Union regulation limits of 25 and 50 fig AFM1/L for infant and adult consumption, respectively. Since AFM1 is derived from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contained in cow feedstuffs, based on the contamination levels of AFM1 found in this study, the exposure of animals to AFB1 seems to be low. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.