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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2011

Author(s): Zimre-Grabensteiner, E; Arshad, N; Amin, A; Hess, M

Title: Genetically different clonal isolates of Trichomonas gallinae, obtained from the same bird, can vary in their drug susceptibility, an in vitro evidence.

Source: Parasitol Int. 2011; 60(2):213-215

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Grabensteiner Elvira
Hess Michael

Vetmed Research Units
University Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Clinical Unit of Poultry Medicine

Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoon which parasitizes in the upper digestive tract of different birds, especially columbiformes (doves and pigeons) and falconiformes. The parasite is also a common inhabitant of the crop of psittacine birds and is frequently detected in budgerigars. The lesions associated with T. gallinae infection of the upper digestive tract range from mild inflammation of the mucosa to large caseous lesions that block the lumen of the oesophagus. Nitroimidazoles are considered to be the drugs of choice for the treatment of trichomonosis. However, only a few studies report the existence of resistant strains of T. gallinae to these drugs. Thus, in the present investigation cloned cultures of T. gallinae obtained from budgerigars and pigeons were analysed for the first time for their in vitro susceptibilities against four 5´-nitroimidazole derivates, including metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole and ornidazole. Significantly different minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) were observed for them against all four drugs. The lowest MLCs revealed the Trichomonas isolates obtained from two budgerigars, ranging from 2.0 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.7 μg/ml for metronidazole and dimetridazole, and from 2.0 ± 0.6 to 6.7 ± 1.7 μg/ml for ornidazole and ronidazole. Contrary to this, the highest MLCs were recorded for one Trichomonas isolate obtained from a pigeon, ranging from 83.3 ± 6.7 (for dimetridazole and ronidazole) to 103.3 ± 3.3 μg/ml (for metronidazole and ornidazole). The data obtained for the resistance testing were further compared with already available genetic data of the small subunit rRNA gene sequences and ITS-1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, indicating a certain correlation between in vitro results and strain relationships.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Antitrichomonal Agents/therapeutic use
Bird Diseases/parasitology
Dimetridazole/therapeutic use
Genes, Protozoan
Genetic Variation
Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use
Ornidazole/therapeutic use
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
RNA, Ribosomal/genetics
RNA, Ribosomal/metabolism
Ronidazole/therapeutic use
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Trichomonas/drug effects*
Trichomonas Infections/drug therapy
Trichomonas Infections/veterinary*

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