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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2021

Authors: Futas, J; Oppelt, J; Burger, PA; Horin, P

Title: A Deadly Cargo: Gene Repertoire of Cytotoxic Effector Proteins in the Camelidae.

Source: Genes (Basel). 2021; 12(2):304

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Burger Pamela

Vetmed Research Units
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology

Project(s): Genomic footprints of domestication in Old World camelids

Characterization of the immunogenome in Old World camelids

Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells can kill target cells based on their expression and release of perforin, granulysin, and granzymes. Genes encoding these molecules have been only poorly annotated in camelids. Based on bioinformatic analyses of genomic resources, sequences corresponding to perforin, granulysin, and granzymes were identified in genomes of camelids and related ungulate species, and annotation of the corresponding genes was performed. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study evolutionary relationships between the species analyzed. Re-sequencing of all genes in a panel of 10 dromedaries and 10 domestic Bactrian camels allowed analyzing their individual genetic polymorphisms. The data showed that all extant Old World camelids possess functional genes for two pore-forming proteins (PRF1, GNLY) and six granzymes (GZMA, GZMB, GZMH, GZMK, GZMM, and GZMO). All these genes were represented as single copies in the genome except the GZMH gene exhibiting interspecific differences in the number of loci. High protein sequence similarities with other camelid and ungulate species were observed for GZMK and GZMM. The protein variability in dromedaries and Bactrian camels was rather low, except for GNLY and chymotrypsin-like granzymes (GZMB, GZMH).

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Killer Cells, Naturalmetabolism
Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteinsgenetics
T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxicmetabolism

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