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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2021

Authors: Badenhorst, M; de Heus, P; Auer, A; Tegtmeyer, B; Stang, A; Dimmel, K; Tichy, A; Kubacki, J; Bachofen, C; Steinmann, E; Cavalleri, JMV

Title: Active equine parvovirus-hepatitis infection is most frequently detected in Austrian horses of advanced age.

Source: Equine Vet J. 2021;



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Auer Angelika
Badenhorst Marcha
Cavalleri Jessika-Maximiliane
de Heus Phebe
Dimmel Katharina
Tichy Alexander

Vetmed Research Units
University Equine Clinic, Clinical Unit of Equine Internal Medicine
Institute of Virology
Platform Bioinformatics and Biostatistics


Abstract:
Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) research is in its infancy. Information regarding prevalence, geographical distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and risk factors enhances understanding of this potentially fatal infection.Determining prevalence of EqPV-H in Austrian equids. Investigating factors increasing probability of infection, liver-associated biochemistry parameters, concurrent equine hepacivirus (EqHV) infection, and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants.Cross-sectional study.Sera from 259 horses and 13 donkeys in Austria were analysed for anti-EqPV-H VP1-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and EqPV-H DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations between infection-status, sex, and age were described. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bile acids, and albumin concentrations were compared between horses with active infection and PCR-negative horses. PCR targeting partial EqPV-H NS1 was performed and phylogenetic analysis of Austrian EqPV-H variants was conducted. Complete coding sequences (CDS) of four Austrian variants were determined by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared to published sequences.Horses' EqPV-H seroprevalence was 30.1% and DNA prevalence was 8.9%. One horse was co-infected with EqHV. Significantly higher probability of active EqPV-H infection was identified in 16- to 31-year-old horses, compared to 1- to 8-year-old horses (p=0.002; OR=8.19; 95% CI=1.79 to 37.50) and 9- to 15-year-old horses (p=0.03; OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.08 to 8.17). Liver-associated plasma parameters were not significantly different between horses with active infection and controls. Austrian EqPV-H variants revealed high similarity to sequences worldwide. No evidence of EqPV-H was detected in donkeys.Equids' inclusion depended upon owner consent. There was only one sampling point per animal and the sample of donkeys was small.EqPV-H antibodies and DNA are frequently detected in Austrian horses, without associated hepatitis in horses with active infection. The risk of active EqPV-H infection increases with increasing age. Phylogenetic evidence supports close relation of EqPV-H variants globally, including Austrian variants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


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