A total of 585 persons from several occupational groups (farmers, slaughterhouse staff, hunters, veterinarians) exposed to Toxocara infestations and 50 persons of a control group were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to the Toxocara canis antigen using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a western blot. Farmers showed the highest seroprevalence (44%), followed by veterinarians (27%), slaughterhouse staff (25%) and hunters (17%), whereas only 2% of the individuals of the control group were seropositive. Thus, the risk to Toxocara infestation is 39, 18, 16 and 9 times higher for farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse staff (some workers were part-time farmers) and for hunters, respectively, when compared to the control group. The main source of infection in rural areas seems to be (roaming) farm cats and dogs that have not been dewormed. The results are discussed with a view to potential risk factors and preventive measures, in terms of veterinary and human medicine.