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Selected Publication:

Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2006

Authors: Gumpenberger, M; Kolm, G

Title: Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examinations of the avian eye: physiologic appearance, pathologic findings, and comparative biometric measurement.

Source: Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2006; 47(5):492-502

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Gumpenberger Michaela
Kolm Gabriela

Vetmed Research Units
University Clinic for Small Animals, Clinical Unit of Diagnostic Imaging
University Clinic for Small Animals, Clinical Unit of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology

Project(s): Computed tomography in birds

Comparative sonography and computed tomography of the avian eye

Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were performed after routine ophthalmologic and ophthalmoscopic examinations in 190 eyes of six various diurnal (common buzzard [Buteo buteo L., 1758], n = 20; common kestrel [Tinnunculus tinnunculus L., 1758], n = 20) and nocturnal raptor species (barn owl [Tyto alba L., 1758], n = 22; tawny owl [Strix aluco L., 1758], n = 8; long-eared owl [Asio otus L., 1758], n = 5; horned owl [Bubo bubo L., 1758], n = 1); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia, Gmel., 1789; n = 19), with a total of 95 individuals. Pathologic findings such as lens subluxation and luxation, intravitreal hemorrhage, detached retina, post-traumatic partial sequestration, or malformation of the pecten could be demonstrated with diagnostic imaging tools, while opacities of cornea or lens constrained direct ophthalmoscopic examination. The results proved US to be a quick noninvasive imaging technique for detailed ocular diagnoses. CT provided detailed information of the bony skull and bony scleral rings as well as adequate visualization of shape, size, and margination of the eye and lens. Nevertheless, CT was unable to differentiate subtle structures within the vitreous like the pecten oculi or hemorrhage. Biometric measurements were carried out to objectify imaging results. Results showed good correlation of depth and width of the anterior eye chamber, lens and vitreous, length of the bulbus, and the pecten but no correlation of cornea and posterior wall thickness was found.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Birds/anatomy & histology*
Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/veterinary
Eye/anatomy & histology*
Predictive Value of Tests
Reference Values
Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary

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