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Selected Publication:

Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2006

Authors: Mayrhofer, E; Gumpenberger, M; Probst, A; Macher, R

Title: Röntgenologische Darstellung anatomischer Varianten am Tarsalgelenk des Hundes.

Source: Veterinary Medicine Austria / Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift (93) 259-268.

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Gumpenberger Michaela
Mayrhofer Elisabeth
Probst Alexander

Vetmed Research Units
University Clinic for Small Animals, Clinical Unit of Diagnostic Imaging
Institute of Topographical Anatomy


Project(s): Atavism and malformation of the canine skeletal system

Anatomy from the view of diagnostic imaging


Abstract:
Introduction Variants and supernumerous bony structures medial to the os tarsi centrale as well as various appearances of the first metatarsus and phalanx are sometimes seen in routine radiographs. They may be misinterpreted as fractures or foreign bodies although rarely causing lameness. Material and methods Mediolateral and dorsoplantar radiographs of tarsal joints in 32 dogs (18 male, 14 female) with already mentioned malformations were reevaluated. 4 legs underwent additional computed tomographic examination and 5 were dissected anatomically. The different variants were described in detail, listed and classified. Results Mostly large breeds were affected, the youngest dogs were 8 weeks old. Most variants were found in Rottweilers and German Shepherd Dogs. Dogs with a bony incus-shaped spur originating medial at the central tarsal bone were classified as type 1 (26 tarsal joints). Dogs grouped as type 2 had a medially positioned triangular additional bone that may originate from an additional but fused apophysis of the central tarsal bone (14 joints). All other variants of additional smaller bones and parted metatarsal bones of the first phalanx were classified as type 3 (11 joints). Conclusion These variants seem to cause no disorders. An existing first metatarsus and phalanx may act as a stabilisator in herding or shepherd dogs; today these additional phalanges represent undesired atavisms and are removed immediately after birth in the majority of cases.


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