Ground water samples from different geographic areas in Austria, with different amounts of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds were treated with a standardized low pressure UV (254 nm)-irradiation laboratory flow-through system (UV fluence: 800 J/m2). The genotoxic activities of the water samples before and after the UV disinfection were investigated using a combination of three different bioassays which complement each other with regard to their sensitivity detecting different genotoxins. The test battery comprises the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test with TA98. TA 100 and TA 102, with and without S9 mix) and two micronucleus tests with the plant Tradescantia (clone #4430) and with primary rat hepatocytes. Overall, the tested Austrian groundwater samples used for human consumption caused only weak genotoxic activities compared to drinking water samples reported from other countries under similar experimental conditions. With the exception of one weak positive result in the Ames test (only in strain TA98 without S9 mix) with an induction factor of 1.9) all samples after UV disinfection were devoid of additional mutagenic and clastogenic activities compared to the samples before UV disinfection.
Animals DNA Damage* Disinfection/methods* Hepatocytes/drug effects Micronucleus Tests Microsomes Mutagenicity Tests Mutagens/analysis* Pressure Rats Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects Salmonella typhimurium/genetics Soil Pollutants/adverse effects* Ultraviolet Rays Water Pollutants/adverse effects* Water Purification* Water Supply*