An acute outbreak of fowl typhoid is described in a free range layer flock in Austria, characterized by a total mortality of 74 %. Various laboratory investigations were carried out in order to confirm the aetiology of the disease. In the pathological investigations the birds showed swelling of the liver and hyperaemia of the ovaries with degenerated follicles. Haemorrhages were noticed in the caecal tonsils and on the epicard. Histopathology revealed necrosis in liver and spleen, caused by bacteria. A non-motile Salmonella was isolated from the livers and ovaries and characterised by various biochemical methods. The somatic antigens were found to be: 1, 9 and 12. Using the API 20 E Microsystem and other biochemical tests it could be shown that the isolate belongs to the biotype Salmonella gallinarum. Sensitivity testing revealed that the isolate is fully susceptible to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and less susceptible to colistinsulphate and lincomycin. The isolate was resistant against neomycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and enrofloxacin. Taking various organs from three surviving birds a PCR based on the InvA-gene of the pathogen was compared with conventional culture procedures. Using PCR, a positive signal was achieved in all tested organs including the brain.