Endoscopy is an effective and minimally invasive technique which offers the possibility of repeated ovum pick-up (OPU). In this study 4 different treatment programs (Groups A, B, C and D) for repeated endoscopic OPU in sheep were investigated. The number of follicles and oocytes, quality of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs), and detectable effects on fertility of the donor ewes were compared. Each group consisted of 5 East Friesian Milksheep. In Group A, follicles were punctured twice a week, in Group B once a week, and in Group C once a week followed by administration of 1500 IU PMSG 48 h prior to OPU. In Group D follicles were punctured and the sheep stimulated with 1500 IU PMSG 48 h prior to OPU once every 2 weeks. The PMSG-stimulated sheep received anti-PMSG immediately after OPU. Over a period of 10 weeks 216 OPU-sessions were performed. A total of 1978 follicles was punctured, and 1098 oocytes were recovered, for a collection rate of 55.5%. In the Groups A,B, C and D an average of 6.8, 8.6, 12.2 and 14.9 follicles per animal and session was aspirated, and an average of 3.8, 4.9, 7.0 and 7.6 COCs per animal per session was recovered, respectively. No significant differences between groups were observed in the collection rates (51.1 to 57.1%) or in the quality of the COCs, and 65 to 70% of the COCs were suitable for in vitro production of ovine embryos. Seven sheep developed small adhesions between the ovary and infundibulum. After the study 15 ewes became pregnant following natural mating with the same fertile ram (5 from Group A, 1 from Group B, 4 from Group C and 5 from Group D). In conclusion, OPU once a week in PMSG/anti-PMSG treated ewes was found to be the most effective treatment program for oocyte collection. (C) 1999 by Elsevier Science Inc.