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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Case Report

Year: 2009

Authors: Willmann, M; Müllauer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Wolfesberger, B; Kleiter, M; Pagitz, M; Hadzijusufovic, E; Shibly, S; Reifinger, M; Thalhammer, JG; Valent, P

Title: Chemotherapy in canine acute megakaryoblastic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

Source: In Vivo. 2009; 23(6):911-918

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Hadzijusufovic Emir
Kleiter Miriam
Pagitz Maximilian
Reifinger Martin
Schwendenwein Ilse
Shibly Sarina
Thalhammer Johann
Willmann Michael
Wolfesberger Birgitt

Vetmed Research Units
Clinical Pathology Platform
University Clinic for Small Animals, Clinical Unit of Internal Medicine Small Animals
Institute of Pathology

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in dogs is a rare disease with poor prognosis. In most subjects, palliative treatment or euthanasia is performed. A 3.5-year-old male castrated labrador with AML-M7, which was treated with induction polychemotherapy (8 cycles) using vincristine (0.5 mg/m(2)/cycle), daunorubicin (20 mg/m(2)/cycle), cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C, 100 mg/m(2)/cycle) and prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) is reported. Treatment was well tolerated and complete remission was achieved. Postinduction chemotherapy consisted of ARA-C, daunorubicin and prednisolone. After 3, 5 and 18 months, the subject relapsed. Each relapse was treated with ARA-C (up to 1,000 mg/m(2)) and etoposide or daunorubicin. Again, no severe side-effects occurred and the disease was controlled, with 37 chemotherapy-cycles (ARA-C, 3 x 1,000 mg/m(2)/cycle), for 24 months. Based on a literature-search, this is the first report documenting a long-term response of canine AML, probably resulting from the high-dose ARA-C. Clinical trials using high-dose ARA-C are now required to confirm antileukemic efficacy in canine leukemias.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use*
Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects
Bone Marrow Cells/pathology
Cytarabine/administration & dosage
Daunorubicin/administration & dosage
Dog Diseases/drug therapy*
Etoposide/administration & dosage
Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute/drug therapy
Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute/pathology
Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute/veterinary*
Prednisolone/administration & dosage
Recurrence/prevention & control
Remission Induction
Vincristine/administration & dosage

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