Stair ambulation is sometimes unavoidable for humans and canines, and changes several parameters of the gait cycle in comparison to level walking. The purpose of this paper is to review and investigate stair ambulation kinematics and kinetics for the human and canine when compared with gait on level surfaces. Data collected from 2 laboratories in a similar manner were analyzed to compare the ankle (tarsal) joint, knee (stifle) joint, and hip joint kinematics for level walking, stair ascent, and stair descent in dogs and humans. The comparison of humans and dogs reveals humans use a greater overall range of motion (ROM) in the hip and knee compared to dogs in all tasks. Dogs use a much greater ROM in the ankle or tarsal joint compared to humans in all tasks. The decreased amount of ROM used at the hip and stifle joints of dogs during level gait, stair climbing, and stair descent when compared to humans is likely a direct result of the increased amount of tarsal flexion dogs use when compared to people. This paper identifies the peak angles of flexion and extension, overall ranges of motion of the hindlimb during normal walking, stair ascent and descent. This information may be used to help devise rehabilitation programs for dogs that need to increase the motion in a particular hindlimb joint through targeted movement tasks.