Puerperal uterine infections are often associated with decreased reproductive performance in dairy cows. Routine treatment protocols include the systemic administration of antibiotics. Antibiotic drugs, however, should be administered daily over at least 5 d. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives in serum, endometrial tissue, and lochia after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid in 6 clinically healthy puerperal dairy cows with normal parturition. Samples were taken immediately before treatment, 2 h after, and then every 24 h over a 7-d period. Concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives were quantified using an HPLC assay. In serum and endometrial tissue, ceftiofur derivatives could be detected above the reported minimum drug concentrations required to inhibit relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes over a 7-d period. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofuracetamide at 5 d after administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid were 1.21±0.61 μg/mL in serum, 0.86±0.61 μg/mg in endometrial tissue, and 0.96±1.15 μg/mL in lochia. In lochia, mean concentrations of ceftiofur derivatives also remained above the minimal inhibitory concentration of relevant pathogens, but showed greater variations between cows.