Recently, the use of microsatellites as genetic markers has become very popular. While their evolutionary dynamics are not yet fully understood, the emerging picture is that several factors are influencing microsatellite mutation rates. Recent experiments demonstrated a significant effect of repeat motif length on microsatellite mutation rates. Here, we studied the influence of the base composition of the microsatellite. Forty-two microsatellite loci on the second chromosome with the three most abundant dinucleotide repeat motifs (TC/AG, AT/TA, GT/CA) were characterized for six different Drosophila melanogaster populations. Applying ANOVA to the variance in repeat number, we found a significant influence of repeat motif on microsatellite variability. Calculating relative mutation rates, GT/CA appears to have the highest mutation rate, and AT/TA appears to have the lowest. Similar differences in mutation rates were obtained by an alternative method which estimates microsatellite mutation rates from their genomic length distribution.