High reproductive performance is required for successful management of dairy farms. After calving, especially endometritis is one of the main reasons for reproductive failure. However, subclinical endometritis remains undetected in many cases and causes a high financial loss. To elucidate the cellular processes in the endometrium, the acquisition of the gene expression will provide helpful information. In the literature, numerous cytokines and enzymes were discussed to play important roles in preparing the endometrium for implantation. This review gives an overview about our present understanding of the functions of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1/COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), haptoglobin as well as the interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1/IL-6). Their role is not only to regulate certain physiological processes in the bovine reproductive tract, but to act also as inflammatory mediators in infectious diseases. A better understanding of cellular processes may help to improve identification and treatment of postpartum reproductive failure.