Several cytokines and prostaglandins play an important role in preparing the endometrium for implantation and mediating pro-inflammatory events. The aim of the present study was to examine mRNA expression of interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin receptor antagonist (IL-1-RN), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), microsomal PGES (mPGES-1 and mPGES-2) and lipocalin-type PGDS (L-PGDS) in the bovine endometrium. Endometrial epithelium samples were collected ex vivo from cows with different status of health at day 21-27 postpartum on a dairy farm. Three groups (n=9 animals each) were defined: (1) healthy cows with no signs of endometritis (control group), (2) cows with subclinical endometritis, and (3) cows with signs of clinical endometritis. Oestrous cycle-dependent mRNA expression pattern was investigated using bovine endometrial epithelial cells from healthy uteri collected at the abattoir. These uteri were classified into post-ovulatory, early-to-mid luteal, late luteal or pre-ovulatory phase (n=8 animals for each cycle phase). After collecting endometrial epithelium using the cytobrush-method, mRNA analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR. L-PGDS, IL-1alpha and IL-1-RN mRNA were expressed significantly higher (P<0.05) in the endometrium of cows with subclinical or clinical endometritis compared with healthy cows. A twofold lower cPGES mRNA expression (P<0.05) was detected in cows with subclinical endometritis compared to healthy cows. L-PGDS and IL-1-RN mRNA expression was increased (P<0.05) after ovulation compared with the pre-ovulatory or luteal phase, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that a dys-regulated cytokine and/or prostaglandin profile in the uterus could be induced by subclinical endometritis or clinical endometritis.