Conception rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI) are of paramount importance for the success of protocols based on synchronization of ovulation. Stage of lactation and milk production level are known factors that influence dairy cow fertility. It was the objective of this study to analyse the effect of stage of lactation and milk production level on conception rates and pregnancy rates by 200 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows synchronized with the Ovsynch protocol (Day -10, Day -1: 0.1 mg of D-Phe6-gonadorelin, Day -3: 0.5 mg of cloprostenol, Day 0: AI). A total of 1,288 dairy cows were assigned to two groups and classified in three production levels (high, average, low). Cows of all milk production levels in Group 1 (Simultaneous Ovsynch, SO) were synchronized with the Ovsynch protocol simultaneously for TAI between 73 and 81 DIM. In Group 2 cows with average milk production were synchronized at the same time as Group 1, while low producing cows were synchronized 3 weeks earlier and high producing cows were synchronized 3 weeks later than Group 1, respectively. First service conception rates (FSCRs) were lower (P<0.05) in cows synchronized earlier than in cows of the same production level synchronized later (low production: 14.4% (22/153) versus 34.5% (51/148); high production: 28.2% (40/142) versus 41.4% (53/128)). Milk production level had no significant impact on conception rates after TAI in cows synchronized at the same stage of lactation. At 200 DIM fewer cows with high production level were pregnant than cows with average or low production (P<0.05). This effect was independent of the stage of lactation at the initiation of Ovsynch. Endometritis at a postpartum examination did not influence conception rates after TAI. In conclusion, stage of lactation, but not milk production level, has a major influence on conception rates after TAI. Early AI after Ovsynch is less efficient and therefore its return on investment should be evaluated carefully.