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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2011

Authors: Wildling, L; Unterauer, B; Zhu, R; Rupprecht, A; HaselgrĂ¼bler, T; Rankl, C; Ebner, A; Vater, D; Pollheimer, P; Pohl, EE; Hinterdorfer, P; Gruber, HJ

Title: Linking of sensor molecules with amino groups to amino-functionalized AFM tips.

Source: Bioconjug Chem. 2011; 22(6):1239-1248



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Pohl Elena
Rupprecht Anne

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Physiology, Pathohysiology and Biophysics, Unit of Physiology and Biophysics


Abstract:
The measuring tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be upgraded to a specific biosensor by attaching one or a few biomolecules to the apex of the tip. The biofunctionalized tip is then used to map cognate target molecules on a sample surface or to study biophysical parameters of interaction with the target molecules. The functionality of tip-bound sensor molecules is greatly enhanced if they are linked via a thin, flexible polymer chain. In a typical scheme of tip functionalization, reactive groups are first generated on the tip surface, a bifunctional cross-linker is then attached with one of its two reactive ends, and finally the probe molecule of interest is coupled to the free end of the cross-linker. Unfortunately, the most popular functional group generated on the tip surface is the amino group, while at the same time, the only useful coupling functions of many biomolecules (such as antibodies) are also NH(2) groups. In the past, various tricks or detours were applied to minimize the undesired bivalent reaction of bifunctional linkers with adjacent NH(2) groups on the tip surface. In the present study, an uncompromising solution to this problem was found with the help of a new cross-linker ("acetal-PEG-NHS") which possesses one activated carboxyl group and one acetal-protected benzaldehyde function. The activated carboxyl ensures rapid unilateral attachment to the amino-functionalized tip, and only then is the terminal acetal group converted into the amino-reactive benzaldehyde function by mild treatment (1% citric acid, 1-10 min) which does not harm the AFM tip. As an exception, AFM tips with magnetic coating become demagnetized in 1% citric acid. This problem was solved by deprotecting the acetal group before coupling the PEG linker to the AFM tip. Bivalent binding of the corresponding linker ("aldehyde-PEG-NHS") to adjacent NH(2) groups on the tip was largely suppressed by high linker concentrations. In this way, magnetic AFM tips could be functionalized with an ethylene diamine derivative of ATP which showed specific interaction with mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) that had been purified and reconstituted in a mica-supported planar lipid bilayer.

Keywords Pubmed: Aldehydes/chemistry*
Amines/chemistry*
Biosensing Techniques*
Ethylene Glycols/chemistry*
Microscopy, Atomic Force
Molecular Structure
Stereoisomerism
Surface Properties


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