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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2004

Author(s): De Roda Husman, AM; Bijkerk, P; Lodder, W; Van Den Berg, H; Pribil, W; Cabaj, A; Gehringer, P; Sommer, R; Duizer, E

Title: Calicivirus inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nanometer-wavelength [UV]) and ionizing (gamma) radiation.

Source: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004; 70(9):5089-5093

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Cabaj Alexander

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Physiology, Pathohysiology and Biophysics, Unit of Physiology and Biophysics

Project(s): UV-Disinfection of water

Noroviruses (previously Norwalk-like viruses) are the most common viral agents associated with food- and waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, animal caliciviruses were used as model viruses to study inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nm-wavelength [UV]) and ionizing (gamma) radiation. Here, we studied the respiratory feline calicivirus (FeCV) and the presumed enteric canine calicivirus (CaCV) and compared them with the well-studied bacteriophage MS2. When UV irradiation was used, a 3-log(10) reduction was observed at a fluence of 120 J/m(2) in the FeCV suspension and at a fluence of 200 J/m(2) for CaCV; for the more resistant phage MS2 there was a 3-log(10) reduction at a fluence of 650 J/m(2). Few or no differences were observed between levels of UV inactivation in high- and low-protein-content virus stocks. In contrast, ionizing radiation could readily inactivate MS2 in water, and there was a 3-log(10) reduction at a dose of 100 Gy, although this did not occur when the phage was diluted in high-protein-content stocks of CaCV or FeCV. The low-protein-content stocks showed 3-log(10) reductions at a dose of 500 Gy for FeCV and at a dose of 300 for CaCV. The inactivation rates for both caliciviruses with ionizing and nonionizing radiation were comparable but different from the inactivation rates for MS2. Although most FeCV and CaCV characteristics, such as overall particle and genome size and structure, are similar, the capsid sequences differ significantly, making it difficult to predict human norovirus inactivation. Adequate management of UV and gamma radiation processes for virus inactivation should limit public health risks.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Calicivirus, Feline/growth & development
Calicivirus, Feline/radiation effects*
Cell Line
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Gamma Rays
Ultraviolet Rays*

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