Handball is one of the top four athletic games with highest injury risks. The jump shot is the most accomplished goal shot technique and the lower extremities are mostly injured. As a basis for ankle sprain simulation, the aim of this study was to extend the ankle region of an existing musculoskeletal full-body model through incorporation of three prominent lateral ankle ligaments: ligamentum fibulotalare anterius (LFTA), ligamentum fibulotalare posterius (LFTP), ligamentum fibulocalcaneare (LFC). The specific objective was to calculate and visualise ligament force scenarios during the jumping and landing phases of controlled jump shots. Recorded kinematic data of performed jump shots and the corresponding ground reaction forces were used to perform inverse dynamics. The calculated peak force of the LFTA (107 N) was found at maximum plantarflexion and of the LFTP (150 N) at maximum dorsiflexion. The peak force of the LFC (190 N) was observed at maximum dorsiflexion combined with maximum eversion. Within the performed jump shots, the LFTA showed a peak force (59 N to 69 N) during maximum plantarflexion in the final moment of the lift off. During landing, the force developed by the LFTA reached its peak value (61 N to 70 N) at the first contact with the floor. After that, the LFTP developed a peak force (70 N to 118 N). This model allows the calculation of forces in lateral ankle ligaments. The information obtained in this study can serve as a basis for future research on ankle sprain and ankle sprain simulation.
Adolescent Ankle/physiology Ankle Injuries/physiopathology Ankle Joint/physiology* Athletic Injuries/physiopathology* Athletic Performance/physiology* Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology Humans Lateral Ligament, Ankle/physiology* Motor Activity/physiology Range of Motion, Articular/physiology Sprains and Strains/physiopathology Stress, Mechanical