Thymomas are rarely recorded in rabbits, and the literature includes comparatively few cases. Medical records were reviewed to identify all pet rabbits in which a mediastinal mass was diagnosed between Feb 2007 and Jan 2010. Signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic work-up (including laboratory data, diagnostic imaging, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mediastinal mass), treatment modalities, survival time, and histologic findings were evaluated. Cytologic and/or histopathologic examinations revealed thymomas in all rabbits with mediastinal masses (n=13). Rabbits with thymomas showed clinical signs of dyspnea (76.9%), exercise intolerance (53.9%), and bilateral exophthalmos (46.2%). In seven rabbits the thymoma was removed surgically. Two rabbits were treated conservatively, and four rabbits were euthanized because of their poor clinical condition. The two rabbits that underwent surgery were euthanized 6 mo and 34 mo later. Mediastinal masses in rabbits appear to be more common than previously believed and consist primarily of thymomas rather than thymic lymphomas. Cytology of samples collected by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is an accurate diagnostic tool for the identification of thymomas in rabbits. Due to a high rate of perioperative mortality, intensive perioperative care and the provision of a low-stress environment are recommended for a successful thoracotomy.