The occurrence of Salmonella in meat from game hunted in Europe is reviewed, with a focus on Central Europe. Prevalence in fecal samples is different according to region and game species, ranging from <5 (wild ruminants) to ca. 20% (wild boar). The pathogen is rarely recovered from carcasses or meat cuts of wild ruminants (<1%). Prevalences on wild boar carcasses have been reported to range from <1 to ca. 7%, the tonsils presumably constituting a main reservoir on the eviscerated carcass. On meat cuts from game, recent German and EU (EFSA) reports indicate a prevalence of <1%. A number of Salmonella enterica serovars can be isolated, with highest prevalences of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Persistence of these pathogens in wildlife is a less pressing issue for biology and wildlife conservation than for public health experts, which has been recognized in the framework of zoonoses legislation. On one hand, wildlife is exposed to salmonellae originating from farm animals and humans, and on the other hand, game can be a source of Salmonella in farm animals. Breeding game under intensified conditions (farmed game) as well as extensive breeding of farm animals, notably pigs, can create new epidemiological situations. The pathway of Salmonella from intestinal content of the live animal to individual meat cuts can be described in qualitative terms, yet the relative contribution of the various factors remains to be quantified, which complicates proper risk assessment. Control of Salmonella in the game meat chain is in part based on Good Hygiene Practice from killing and evisceration to chilling and skinning, whereas more detailed data are needed in order to allow risk-based meat inspection. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.