A monoclonal antibody (1G2) was raised by immunization of a Balb/c mouse with the leukemic blasts from a patient suffering from chronic myelogenous leukemia blast crisis (CML-BC). Sequential immunoprecipitation of the protein from human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 1G2 and the endoglin-specific monoclonal antibody 44G4 indicated that both antibodies react with the same molecule, a homodimer of molecular mass 180 000. This protein was first identified on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was shown to be primarily associated with endothelial cells. In addition, 1G2 and 44G4 identified the same subpopulation of human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC), as established by two colour immunofluorescence analysis. By cell sorting and colony assays it could be demonstrated that endoglin is not expressed on hemopoietic precursor cells (CFU-G, CFU-GM, CFU-GEMM, BFU-E). May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining of sorted BMMNC revealed that 1G2 recognized immature proerythroblasts and double-fluorescence analysis showed that endoglin is present on a subset of glycophorin A-positive BMMNC. 1G2 was not reactive on bone marrow B-cells (CD19, CD20), T-cells (CD3, CD7), natural killer cells (CD56), myeloid cells (CD13, CD14, CD15, CD33), and on CD34-positive cells. Endoglin contains an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence, a feature generally associated with extracellular matrix proteins which interact with integrins. It is suggested that proerythroblasts may utilize endoglin to interact with integrins in cell-cell adhesion events in the stromal or hemopoietic compartment of the bone marrow.