Animals with different health status have been studied in order to extend the knowledge about protein composition of porcine saliva samples and to discover potential salivary markers for systemic disease in porcine production. Clinical examination of animals was performed at farm level where 10 healthy pigs and 10 animals with evident clinical signs of disease were randomly selected. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and afterwards animals were humanely sacrificed to perform a complete necropsy. Levels of two acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein, were used to identify possible active infections of the animals. Moreover, serological analysis, to the main porcine infectious diseases in the area, was performed. Salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for the identification of specific proteins. A total of 58 spots out of 75 were successfully identified by MS, which correspond to 20 unique proteins. Two different approaches were used to perform a statistical comparison of saliva protein patterns from healthy and diseased animals using the relative spot volume (% spot volume/total volume of all spot in the gel, approach "A") or taking also into account the total protein content of each saliva sample (μg of spot/mL of saliva, approach "B"). Both analyses showed three proteins in common that are differentially regulated between states. However, approach B was selected for biomarker searching since it gave an estimation of protein concentration and showed differential expression of proteins between both health states in a total of 10 proteins, which were up-regulated in disease. Mass spectrometric analysis identified those proteins as salivary lipocalin, lipocalin 1, double headed protease inhibitor protein, adenosine deaminase, haptoglobin, albumin fragments, S100-A8, S100-A9, S100-A12 and pancreatic alpha amylase. These proteins could be considered as potential salivary markers of disease.
Animals Biological Markers/metabolism C-Reactive Protein/metabolism Case-Control Studies Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional Haptoglobins/metabolism Male Pilot Projects Proteomics Saliva/metabolism Salivary Proteins and Peptides/isolation & purification Salivary Proteins and Peptides/metabolism* Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Sus scrofa/metabolism* Swine Swine Diseases/diagnosis* Swine Diseases/metabolism* Tandem Mass Spectrometry