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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2013

Author(s): Metzler-Zebeli, BU; Zebeli, Q

Title: Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

Source: J Anim Sci. 2013; 91(7):3188-3199



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Metzler-Zebeli Barbara
Zebeli Qendrim

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
University Clinic for Swine


Abstract:
Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P < 0.05), whereas the ATTD of DM was reduced by 10% up to a threshold β-glucan of 3.5%, above which the response became asymptotic (R(2) = 0.34; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary NDF content decreased ATTD of DM and energy, and increasing xylose concentration reduced ATTD of energy and CP (R(2) = 0.24 to 0.85; P < 0.05). Broken-line model indicated that cecal total VFA and butyrate concentrations increased up to a threshold of 2.5 and 1.4% β-glucan in the diet, respectively, above which these responses became asymptotic (R(2) = 0.77 to 0.96; P < 0.05). Ileal butyrate was negatively and colonic iso-butyrate was positively linked to increasing β-glucan concentration (R(2) = 0.17 to 0.41; P < 0.05). Greater β-glucan concentration were negatively related (R(2) = 0.86; P < 0.01) to NH3 emission, indicating a reduction in NH3 emission by one-half with 6% β-glucan. Backward elimination analysis indicated that greater BW of pigs counteracted (P < 0.05) the negative effect of β-glucan on AID of CP and energy and ATTD of DM and CP. Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

Keywords Pubmed: Ammonia/metabolism*
Animal Feed/analysis
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Animals
Cereals/chemistry
Diet/veterinary
Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins/metabolism*
Digestion*
Fermentation
Intestines/metabolism*
Manure/analysis
Polysaccharides/administration & dosage
Polysaccharides/metabolism*
Sus scrofa/growth & development
Sus scrofa/physiology*
beta-Glucans/administration & dosage
beta-Glucans/metabolism


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