Growing interest in the underlying mechanisms of an equine spine in motion has yielded very informative data. In the beginning most of the knowledge on functional anatomy of the back was provided by dissections on cadavers. With time, the approach to the subject changed and new techniques like the use of high speed cameras for collection of kinematic and kinetic data and electromyography techniques were employed. Gaits such as walk, trot, and canter are studied in more detail for the magnitude of movements of different segments of the spine during a stride, and for the temporal pattern of the muscular activity. Use of these modern techniques has added tremendously to our understanding of the functional peculiarities of the equine spine, but still there are many unanswered questions. This article reviews not only the current information on this topic, but also hints at the required future developments that can help us better understand structural peculiarities of the equine spine and their functional implications.