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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2015

Author(s): Metzler-Zebeli, BU; Schmitz-Esser, S; Mann, E; GrĂ¼ll, D; Molnar, T; Zebeli, Q

Title: Adaptation of the cecal bacterial microbiome of growing pigs in response to resistant starch type 4.

Source: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015; 81(24):8489-8499



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Mann-Selberherr Evelyne
Metzler-Zebeli Barbara
Schmitz-Esser Stephan
Zebeli Qendrim

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Institute of Food Safety, Food Technology and Veterinary Public Health, Unit of Food Microbiology
University Clinic for Swine


Project(s): Establishment of a reliable in vivo model for the classification of the health-promoting effects of carbohydrates


Abstract:
Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS.

Keywords Pubmed: Adaptation, Physiological/physiology*
Animal Feed
Animals
Bacteria/classification
Bacteria/genetics
Bacteria/metabolism*
Cecum/microbiology*
DNA, Bacterial/genetics
Diet
Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism
Fermentation
Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics*
Male
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Starch/analysis
Starch/metabolism*
Swine


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