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Publication type: Journal Article
Document type: Full Paper

Year: 2015

Author(s): Borges, NC; Weissengruber, GE; Huber, J; Kofler, J

Title: Ultrasonographic examination of the elbow region in calves and cows - normal appearance.

Source: Berl Munch Tierarztl. 2015; 128(9-10): 416-424.



Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Huber Johann
Kofler Johann
Weissengruber Gerald

Vetmed Research Units
Clinical Unit of Ruminant Medicine
Institute of Topographical Anatomy
VetFarm


Abstract:
The present study describes the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the elbow region in healthy Holstein Friesian calves (n = 12) and Holstein Friesian cows (n = 12). Using 7.5 MHz linear and 5.0 MHz convex probes the ultrasonographic appearance and dimensions of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), joint pouch (JP), joint capsule (JC), joint space, vessels, muscles, bursa, bone surface, growth plate, articular and apophyseal cartilage were studied and measured. The exam started on the lateral aspect by identification of the LCL and continued to cranial, medial and caudal sides. The diameter of the LCL ranged between 9.2-18.6 mm in cows and 1.7-8.3 mm in calves. The caudo-lateral JP was easily imaged at the level of the humero-radioulnar joint caudal of the LCL, however the cranial JP was hardly or not visualized. Experimental injection of 20-40 ml of water post-mortem produced a clear distension and imaging of the joint pouch. Eleven muscles of the elbow region were distinguished in calves and seven in cows. Positive correlations were noticed between the age and the body weight (BW) with all parameters measured in calves. However, in cows, the BW correlated with the skin bone surface distance and the thickness of the LCL only. It is concluded that ultrasonography allowed consistent imaging of the normal anatomical structures of the elbow region in calves and cows, giving reference values for the evaluation of pathological alterations.


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