Uterine disorders are common postpartum diseases in dairy cows. In practice, uterine treatment is often based on systemic or locally applied antimicrobials with no previous identification of pathogens. Accurate on-farm diagnostics are not available, and routine testing is time-consuming and cost intensive. An accurate method that could simplify the identification of uterine pathogenic bacteria and improve pathogen-specific treatments could be an important advance to practitioners. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a database built with uterine bacteria from European dairy cows could be used to identify bacteria from Argentinean cows by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Uterine samples from 64 multiparous dairy cows with different types of vaginal discharge (VD) were collected between 5 and 60 days postpartum, analyzed by routine bacteriological testing methods and then re-evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n = 27).