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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2017

Authors: Schwarz, L; Riedel, C; Högler, S; Sinn, LJ; Voglmayr, T; Wöchtl, B; Dinhopl, N; Rebel-Bauder, B; Weissenböck, H; Ladinig, A; Rümenapf, T; Lamp, B

Title: Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence.

Source: Vet Res. 2017; 48(1):1

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Bauder Barbara
Dinhopl Nora
Högler Sandra
Ladinig Andrea
Lamp Benjamin
Riedel Christiane
Rümenapf Hans Tillmann
Schwarz Lukas
Sinn Leonie
Weissenböck Herbert
Wöchtl Bettina

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Pathology
Institute of Virology
University Clinic for Swine

In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR. A genomic sequence and seven partial sequences were determined and revealed a 90% identity to the US APPV sequences and 92% identity to German sequences. In confirmation with previous reports, APPV genomes were identified in different body fluids and tissues including the CNS of diseased piglets. APPV could be isolated from a "shaking piglet", which was incapable of consuming colostrum, and passaged on different porcine cells at very low titers. To assess the antibody response a blocking ELISA was developed targeting NS3. APPV specific antibodies were identified in sows and in PCR positive piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT). APPV genomes were detected continuously in piglets that gradually recovered from CT, while the antibody titers decreased over a 12-week interval, pointing towards maternally transmitted antibodies. High viral loads were detectable by qRT-PCR in saliva and semen of infected young adults indicating a persistent infection.

Keywords Pubmed: Animals
Animals, Newborn/virology
Antibodies, Viral/immunology
Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
Pestivirus Infections/congenital
Pestivirus Infections/epidemiology
Pestivirus Infections/pathology
Pestivirus Infections/veterinary*
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary
Swine Diseases/congenital
Swine Diseases/epidemiology
Swine Diseases/pathology
Swine Diseases/virology*
Viral Load/veterinary

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