The objective of the present study was to test the association between the presence of fluid in uterine lumen and the fertility of repeat breeder cows (RBC). Grazing Holstein cows that were clinically normal and were not pregnant after at least 3 consecutive inseminations were defined as RBC and included in the study (n = 358). A cut-point ≥2 mm of uterine lumen visible by ultrasonography was used as indicative of the presence of fluid in the uterus. The effect of this fluid on the fertility of RBC was assessed by mixed logistic regression. Twenty percent of the RBC had ≥2 mm of fluid in their uterus, and this finding was associated with a marked reduction in the odds of conception (odds ratio = 0.46). Additional intrauterine sampling revealed that 24.0% of RBC showed signs of subclinical endometritis [≥5% neutrophils in endometrial cytology (SCE)]. However, we found no agreement between the finding of uterine fluid and the diagnosis of SCE (kappa coefficient = 0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.07 to 0.14). In conclusion, the presence of fluid (≥2 mm) in uterine lumen, detected by ultrasonography, was associated with lower fertility in RBC, but was not related to the diagnosis of SCE. Thus, ultrasonographic evaluation is an important tool to assist in assessment of RBC.