Humans have been closely associated with livestock ever since domestication, which corresponds to the onset of artificial selection. Until the 19th century livestock was a valuable supplier of fertiliser and its traction indispensable for field work. The further development of animal production happened in parallel to industrialisation. In subsistence farming a farmer has fed about four and feeds over 130 people today. Meat consumption has increased to almost 100 kg per capita, of which about 70% is used for human consumption. Animal breeding has become much more scientific. We are in an era where society expects to be extensively informed and involved in discussions. This has been realised in the field of genome analysis. The decision of the European Court of Justice that gene edited animals are subject to the GMO guidelines is not reasonable. The welfare of animals and environmental sustainability must be considered. Global agriculture is facing tremendous challenges due to the growing world population. Politicians, scientists and agriculturalists have to talk about upcoming developments and economic conditions. Society expects high quality and healthy food and transparency in production, processing, trade and consumer protection.