The use of transgenic mouse models has revolutionized the study of many human diseases. However, murine models are limited in their representation of spontaneously arising tumors and often lack key clinical signs and pathological changes. Thus, a closer representation of complex human diseases is of high therapeutic relevance. Given the high failure rate of drugs at the clinical trial phase (i.e., around 90%), there is a critical need for additional clinically relevant animal models. Companion animals like cats and dogs display chronic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases that closely resemble the human counterpart. Cat and dog patients can also be treated with clinically approved inhibitors or, if ethics and drug safety studies allow, pilot studies can be conducted using, e.g., inhibitors of the evolutionary conserved JAK-STAT pathway. The incidence by which different types of cancers occur in companion animals as well as mechanisms of disease are unique between humans and companion animals, where one can learn from each other. Taking advantage of this situation, existing inhibitors of known oncogenic STAT3/5 or JAK kinase signaling pathways can be studied in the context of rare human diseases, benefitting both, the development of drugs for human use and their application in veterinary medicine.