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Type of publication: Journal Article
Type of document: Full Paper

Year: 2021

Authors: Petri, RM; Aditya, S; Humer, E; Zebeli, Q

Title: Effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge on the hindgut microbial composition and fermentation of dairy cattle experiencing intermittent subacute ruminal acidosis.

Source: J Dairy Sci. 2021; 104(5):5417-5431

Authors Vetmeduni Vienna:

Humer Elke
Siska Aditya Xxx
Zebeli Qendrim

Vetmed Research Units
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds

Project(s): d-i.INFLACOW: Characterization and prevention of diet-induced inflammation and related immune and metabolic disorders in dairy cows

Feeding grain-rich diets often results in subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), a condition associated with ruminal dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Yet, the effect of SARA on hindgut microbiota, and whether this condition is aggravated by exogenous immune stimuli, is less understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the effects of an intermittent high-grain SARA model on the hindgut microbial community, and to evaluate whether the effects of SARA on the fecal microbiome and fermentation were further affected by an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. A total of 18 early-lactating Simmental cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 6); 2 were fed a SARA-inducing feeding regimen (60% concentrate), 1 was fed a control (CON) diet (40% concentrate). On d 30, 1 SARA group (SARA-LPS) and the CON group (CON-LPS) were intramammarily challenged with a single dose of 50 µg of LPS from Escherichia coli O26:B6, whereas the remaining 6 SARA cows (SARA-PLA) received a placebo. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, with grouping according to parity and days in milk), statistical analysis was performed with baseline measurements used as a covariate in a mixed model procedure. The SARA-inducing feeding challenge resulted in decreased fecal pH and increased butyrate as a proportion of total short-chain fatty acids in the feces. On d 30, SARA-challenged cows had decreased fecal diversity as shown by the Shannon and Chao1 indices and a decrease in the relative abundance of Euryarchaeota and cellulolytic genera, and numerical increases in the relative abundance of several Firmicutes associated with starch and secondary fermentation. The LPS challenge did not affect the fecal pH and short-chain fatty acids, but increased the Chao1 richness index in an interaction with the SARA challenge, and affected the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia (1.13%), Actinobacteria (0.19%), and Spirochaetes (0.002%), suggesting an effect on the microbial ecology of the hindgut during SARA conditions. In conclusion, the SARA-inducing feeding regimen promoted important microbial changes at d 30, including reduced diversity and evenness compared with CON, whereas the external LPS challenge led to changes in the microbial community without affecting fecal fermentation properties.Copyright © 2021 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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