Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, already widely used to reduce fever, inflammation and pain, are under increasing consideration as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of neoplasia. As COX-2 was detected in human and canine osteosarcomas, we have evaluated the effect of the preferential COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam on an established D-17 canine osteosarcoma cell line, which expressed, as well as COX-1 and COX-2 also COX-3 (as demonstrated by Western blot). An XTT proliferation kit was used to assess surviving cells after drug treatment. At low concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 10 microm) meloxicam caused an increase in cell numbers while a marked anti-proliferative effect was observed at higher concentrations (100, 200 microm) after 3 days and also 3 weeks of incubation. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin showed a cytotoxic effect at all concentrations (60-1920 nm). Exposure of tumour cells to combinations of meloxicam and doxorubicin revealed synergistic effects (with 240 nm doxorubicin), as well as sub-additive and antagonistic results, especially if combined with concentrations of meloxicam typically found in serum. Care should be taken in concluding, on the basis of one in vitro study, that meloxicam does not have a role in the treatment of canine osteosarcomas given that the results from in vivo studies may differ.
Animals Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use* Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy* Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use* Dogs Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Doxorubicin/therapeutic use* Drug Synergism Osteosarcoma/drug therapy* Thiazines/therapeutic use* Thiazoles/therapeutic use* Tumor Cells, Cultured